Sea Tech Week® 2022
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      • Le 29/07/2022
      • Discover the content of the session: "Towards the definition of port ecology and ecological port"

      • The confrontation between maritime transport and ecological transition raises colossal challenges. It questions both the technical system, able to respond to environmental issues, and the capacity of the socio-system to initiate adaptation dynamics. If the ship is often at the heart of the reflections to engage this green revolution of shipping, the role of the port in this transition appears more difficult to apprehend. Commercial ports, as interface spaces, offer ecology a system of flows that is complex to grasp as a whole. The port metabolism therefore calls for a necessarily interdisciplinary approach that this session intends to highlight.
      • Rimouski.jpeg
      • Organizers

        Institut France-Québec Maritime (France-Canada)

         

        Programme

        TUESDAY 27th SEPTEMBER 2022

         

        • 3.10pmIntroduction
          By Eric Foulquier(203)
          (203) LETG, Brest University (UBO), France
        • 3.20pm
          Port ecology and green supply chain: a key relationship
          Marie Douet(116), and Romuald Lacoste(116)
          (116) CY Cergy Paris Université, Cerema, MATRIS, France
          [Read the abstract]
        • 3.40pm
          Voyage Route Optimization for Ocean Going Vessels Balancing Cost, Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions
          Sharif Nazanin(204)
          (204) Laval University, Canada
          [Read the abstract]
        • 4pm
          AIS-based assessment of port vulnerability (To be confirmed)
          Clément Iphar(203)
          (203) LETG, Brest University (UBO), France
          [Read the abstract]
        • 4.20pm
          Trade-off analysis in multi-modal distribution network design
          Marie-Sabine Saget(204)
          (204) Laval University, Canada
          [read the abstract]
        • 4.40pm – coffee break
        • 5pm
          Innovative biomonitoring in port ecosystem: lessons and perspectives from the QUAMPO project
          Benedicte Madon(114), Marion Pillet(115), Justine Castrec(115), Quentin Fontaine(115), Pierre Lejeune(115), Michel Marengo(115), and Helene Thomas(114)
          (114) La Rochelle Université, France
          (115) Station de Recherche Océanographiques et Sous-marines Stareso, France
          [Read the abstract]
        • 5.20pm
          Following the energy flow in the port of Nantes St-Nazaire: the port as a vector, consumer and producer of energy
          Annabelle Duval(205)
          (205) Nantes University, France
          [Read the abstract]
        • 5.40pm
          Road transportation GHG emissions and congestion assessment at seaport’s access gates during a major expansion project
          Afef Lagha(206)
          (206) Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada
          [Read the abstract]
        • 6pm
          The landscapes of the city-port, Pointe-à-Pitre reflecting its maritimity
          Alice Ferrari(207)
          (207) IUEM, Brest University, France
          [Read the abstract]
        • 6.20pm
          Wrap-up and conclusion
          By Jean-François Audy(206)
          (206) Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada

         

        Abstracts

         

        Port ecology and green supply chain: a key relationship
        Marie Douet(116), and Romuald Lacoste(116)
        (116) CY Cergy Paris Université, Cerema, MATRIS, France

        Within maritime supply chains the ecological transition concerns various players, including shippers and port authorities. Shippers have two main ways of greening shipments: incorporation of green criteria for the suppliers' selection, and joint optimization of flows in accordance with suppliers and customers. Shippers therefore encourage their suppliers, including shipowners and port service providers to green their own services. This is the reason why shipowners wishing to green ship operations need to find green suppliers at seaports (energy, fuel). They also expect other port services (pilotage, towage, terminals and so on) to become greener.

        s far as they are concerned, the port authorities have quickly identified the greening issues to focus on: air, energy, noise, water, waste management (ships and port activities) land resources and dredging (less dredging, sediment reuse and recycling). As ship calls may impact each of these issues, port authorities cannot improve port ecology without closely collaborating with shipowners.

        As a matter of fact, the requirements of the ecological transition intensify the interdependence between the port authority and its major customer, the shipowner. Putting port ecology into an organizational perspective with supply chains provides a deeper understanding of the key role of the shipowner-port authority relationship.

        The analysis relies on bibliographical resources and interviews, complemented by the debates at two Ecotech meetings "Innovative solutions for sustainable ports".

         

        Voyage Route Optimization for Ocean Going Vessels Balancing Cost, Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions
        Sharif Nazanin(204)
        (204) Laval University, Canada

        Maritime transport is a crucial commercial industry representing more than 80% of intercontinental freight transport. This sector is under high international pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Since January 2020, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has imposed a new regulation that targets the reduction of sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions by lowering the limit of sulphur content in fuel oil consumed by vessels from 3.5% to 0.5%. This regulation has a significant impact on the overall costs and further motivates the optimization of the performance of vessels. Our project aims to develop a decision support tool to support bulk carriers' route planning process with multiple conflicting objectives such as safety, fuel consumption and voyage duration.

        Our study applies machine learning techniques to estimate speed and fuel consumption based on historical data, weather data, and vessel characteristics. A large database was obtained from our industry partner True North Marine. With a good prediction of speed and fuel consumption, better route decisions can be made in voyage route planning. Besides, our fundamental research also provides quantitative approaches to model and assess comparative safety levels for safety management.

        The route planning is done by establishing a weighted objective function for the overall model. We used an inverse optimization approach based on standard Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions to find objective weights. In this approach, the expert knowledge of vessel captains established so-called best practice routes in different weather conditions. The best practice routes are the feasible solution to the inverse programming aiming to imitate the behaviour of the experienced planners.

         

        AIS-based assessment of port vulnerability (To be confirmed)
        Clément Iphar(203)
        (203) LETG, Brest University (UBO), France

        In the Caribbean, the interactions between the ports and their traffic shape the local maritime landscape. We propose a method to extract vessel stopovers from Automatic Identification System data, applied to a set of islands in the Lesser Antilles. The use of the ports by the vessels is diverse and a data-based port traffic assessment can be led by various means and through various indicators, based on elements such as the age of the vessels, their tonnage or the duration of the stopovers. This assessment, made across various types of vessels (such as general cargo, tankers, passengers or cruise vessels), is a foundation for a better understanding of port vulnerability.

         

        Trade-off analysis in multi-modal distribution network design
        Marie-Sabine Saget(204)
        (204) Laval University, Canada

        The literature on multimodality shows that it is central to analyze shipping processes within a sea-land integrated system. In that regard, it highlights, inter alia, strategies related to route choice, port productivity, and hinterland accessibility to increase port traffic capture. It is a concept that is applicable to the trade relationship between Western Europe and Eastern North America. The latter is particularly relevant as such trade ties involve transportation activities along the Ontario-Quebec continental gateway and trade corridor. Indeed, the trade movements between the Western part of Canada and South-East Asia have been increasing, and the recent enlargement of the Panama Canal has brought stiffer competition between Eastern and Western ports in North America to capture container traffic from South East Asia. However, the transatlantic shipping network remains significant for the Canadian economy, as it is the fastest transit way to the Ontario-Quebec trade corridor.
        Levesque emphasized that three elements distinguish the latter from the Asia-Pacific and Atlantic Canadian gateways. She referred to its significance as Canada’s key economic gateway is due to its closeness to major North American markets, its relevance in supporting 560 billion CAD of trade, and the integration of the multimodal transportation system into the rest of North America with four modes along the St-Lawrence – Great Lakes Trade Corridor linked to the Continent heartland.

        Such observations emphasize the need to understand the main factors behind the competitiveness of Eastern Canadian ports as it relates to traffic capture. Concurrently, they underline the possible ways governments can leverage their policies to address the externalities of maritime operations on the environment and public health. Thus, we propose a bi-objective optimization framework for containerized cargo routing planning in an integrated and multimodal shipping structure. We consider a freight integrator managing cargo flows from various ports in Western Europe through ports in North-Eastern America to cities from Nova Scotia to Ontario, but with a concentration along the aforementioned trade corridor. The objective is to determine cost-minimizing path selection while emphasizing (1) the bifurcation of port choice strategies between the conflicting cost-minimizing and transit time-minimizing objectives; (2) shipping efficiency beyond the sole consideration of terminal productivity by accounting for hinterland access and the carbon footprint of transportation activities.

        The reference work for this approach is that of Lam and Gu [1] who used a carbon emissions' threshold for the shipping operations. While such a carbon scheme is one of the most prominent carbon mitigating policies for shipping operations, one can raise the criticism that it is a strategy allowing carriers to pollute up to a given limit. Furthermore, the study of the referenced authors did not detail the rationale for establishing the carbon restrictions. To address this particular gap, we refer to the current carbon pricing policy by the Canadian government, which imposes a carbon pollution penalty starting at $20 per ton of CO2 in 2019 to $50 in 2022.

        Focusing on the aspect related to the environmental policies, we use the linear weighted sum method to understand the trade-offs associated with multi-objective transportation problems. Such an analysis applied to the context of port choice could serve as a tool to establish a quota system based on realistic grounds. It could also allow determining whether relevant authorities can implement such a system to increase the competitiveness of Eastern Canadian ports to the detriment of their U.S. counterparts, as the port of New York is often the substitute port (instead of the port of Halifax) when the port of Montreal is congested or not fully operational.

        Overall, we are conducting a two-fold analysis to determine how to attain total efficiency while incorporating the environmental impacts of shipping operations. Hence, our analysis complies with the suggestions stressed by several researchers on the need to study the behavior of container routing arrangement problems under cogent policy schemes, notably in port cities.

         

        Innovative biomonitoring in port ecosystem: lessons and perspectives from the QUAMPO project
        Benedicte Madon(114), Marion Pillet(115), Justine Castrec(115), Quentin Fontaine(115), Pierre Lejeune(115), Michel Marengo(115), and Helene Thomas(114)
        (114) La Rochelle Université, France
        (115) Station de Recherche Océanographiques et Sous-marines Stareso, France

        The rapid modification of coastal landscapes is on course to reach a critical point and port areas symbolises the outmost of such landscape alteration. The growing trend in recreational boats whose market grow continuously in the coming years also leads to the anthropization of coastal habitats through the development of ports. By their coastal settlement, ports replace important natural habitats for biodiversity but can still bear surrogate artificial habitats from nursery to refuge areas. Unsurprisingly, biodiversity in port ecosystems faces many anthropic pressures from port activities and has been under-studied by lack of interest of local stakeholders and a difficult environment. Difficulties in implementing integrated environmental management, accounting for the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, have been part of the issue. Difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes in ports for more sustainable practices have also contributed. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal areas. However, the maritime industry and port areas have been under scrutiny regarding their environmental impacts and the development of environmental certifications is providing incentives to engage port managers in the implement of actions to fulfil these environmental certifications and European Directive requirements.

         

        Following the energy flow in the port of Nantes St-Nazaire: the port as a vector, consumer and producer of energy
        Annabelle Duval(205)
        (205) Nantes University, France

        Handling cargo and acting as a hatch for imports and exports is a port’s main function. In being

        so, the port is thus imposed energy flows by (private) shipping companies. However, a port’s functionis not limited to being a transit node: In being a consumer and a producer of energy, the port can have an otherwise active role in shaping energy flows and contributing to the sustainable transition that encourages the shift from fossil-fuel to renewable energy sources.

        For this study is chosen the Nantes-St Nazaire Grand Maritime Port (GPM NSN). It reveals a

        meaningful case for several reasons. Two thirds of the port traffic on the Loire Estuary relate to fossil energy sources; the GPM’s activity is characterised by a significant transit of energy products -including petroleum, natural gas, coal- that made up 70% of its traffic in 2017 (Cerema, 2021). In 2015, the port announced its ambition to become a reference one for energy and ecological transition. Subsequently it took part in the project to develop France’s first off shore wind farm. Despite the maintenance station being in the La Turballe port north of St Nazaire on the coast, the GPM was chosen as the production site for wind turbines. This project reveals a region-wide initiative in terms of sustainable energy development in which ports, along with private companies such as EDF Renewables, have a significant role to play. Once operational, the farm will provide 20% of the domestic consumption of the Loire- Atlantique region. Additionally, the GPM NSN holds other energy production sites such as the Cordemais thermal power station handled by EDF, which produces about 25% of the country’s energy through the use of fossil-fuels and is as well investigating sustainable initiatives as part of a wider energy transition (Strategic project 2021-2026 GPM NSNS, 2021).

        When social actors organise energy flows spatially to enable social action, the resulting energy

        systems internalise political-economic logics (Cederlöf, 2021). The maritime sector has seen a rise of global private actors in recent years: a small number of international operators and a few large shipping lines increasingly dominate port operations worldwide. A phenomenon accompanied with the advent of the Landlord port model, advertised extensively by the World Bank (Port Reform Toolkit, 2007) in which the Port Authority is transformed into a territorial authority, in charge of the management of land assets alongside the quay, instead of the operational capacities conceded to private operators.

        This research project sets out to analyse the port as a tri-actor in the energy transition. Firstly,

        understanding the three activities in relation to each other allows for a critical demonstration of the port’s most pressing needs when undergoing an energy transition towards renewable energy sources.

        Secondly, analysing the division between public and private actors in the governance of the three

        activities illustrates the limitations and opportunities, in other words the feasibility of enacting such a shift.


        Road transportation GHG emissions and congestion assessment at seaport’s access gates during a major expansion project
        Afef Lagha(206)
        (206) Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada

        Ports play a central role in facilitating logistics and supply chains in regional, national and international economic development. To cope with a growing demand in port services, one of the options for port authorities is to increase overall port capacity by building new maritime terminal. Ultimately, major expansion project will likely lead to additional freight trucks traffic at port’s access gateways but certainly during the construction phase. Rarely considered in the scientific literature, the additional traffic associated with the construction activities can lead to considerable congestion with current freight traffic and increase GHG emissions both inside and outside the port. In order to mitigate negative impacts of such increased inbound and outbound traffic at access gates, port authorities need to make informed investment decisions on the nature of the improvements required to their current access infrastructure. This talk presents a simulation-based study to assess traffic congestion at access gates during a major port expansion and to investigate city-side congestion and associated GHG emissions. Numerical results of a GHG emissions model assessing the carbon footprint of freight and construction trucking activities will be presented according to different scenarios of improvements to the access gates infrastructure. The study will provide management recommendations to enable port managers reducing the impact of traffic congestion through a well-thought-out scenario-based assessment of both current and forecasted traffic contexts and suitable capacity sizing during the construction phase.

         

        The landscapes of the city-port, Pointe-à-Pitre reflecting its maritimity
        Alice Ferrari(207)
        (207) IUEM, Brest University, France

        Symbols of connection and intercontinental openness, the ports materialise a process of globalisation. As privileged places of land-sea interface, these ports are part of urban spaces - sometimes metropolitan - which they shape and structure through multiple activities. In this sense, the port constitutes a double interface: it is connected to the sea on the one hand, and to the city on the other.

        However, city-port and city-sea interfaces have their own complexity.

        Through the analysis of coastal landscapes and symbols of maritimity, we will try to analyse to what extent a city-port corresponds to the standards of a city by the sea. We will specifically present the case of the city of Pointe-à-Pitre and its different ports, each presenting different functionalities, making the city strategic within the Caribbean arc. This economic capital has undeniable links with its ports, whether they are commercial or pleasure ports, hosting IMOCA, container ships or cruise liners. This paper will highlight the different types of translation of the maritime world inside the city and its spatialization.

         

  • Campus mondial de la mer
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  • Région Bretagne
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  • Technopôle Brest Iroise
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